The minutes of boundary determination done by a land surveyor is used to establish permanently and irrevocably the limit between two contiguous properties by putting boundary markers on the ground and registering the rights thus established at the official registry. There are two types of minutes of boundary determination, friendly and judicial.
The major differences between the certificate of staking and the minutes of boundary determination are the fact that the boundary determination is a bilateral operation (both neighbours must sign the document) and that it is public and opposed to the third party (published at the Quebec Land Registry)
In virtue of article 978 of the Québec civil Code, « every owner may compel his neighbour to have the boundaries between their contiguous lands determined in order to fix the boundary markers back in place, verify ancient boundary markers or rectify the dividing line between their properties. »